Yes, this can be accomplished by adding fields into a Column and append Conditional logic on that column. You can also accomplish a similar behaviour with the native "TABs" or "Accordion" layout elements. Simply place any element inside them. Keep in mind that the "TABs" and "Accordion" items/groups do not have an option to set conditional logic individually.
It is even possible to put TABs and Accordions inside conditional columns, or conditional columns inside TABs and Accordions.
Here is a demonstration of TABs, Accordions and Columns combined with conditional logic: